Cgminer, the ASIC Bitcoin Miner

What is Cgminer?

Cgminer, is an ASIC bitcoin miner software written in c, cross-platform for Windows, Linux, OSX and other, with monitoring, fan speed control, and remote interface capabilities, completely overhauled based on the original code cpuminer.

The code is provided entirely free of charge by the programmer, and is licensed under the GPLv3.

Features

– Very low overhead free c code for Linux and windows with very low non-mining CPU and ram usage
– Stratum and GBT pooled mining protocol support, including ultra-low overhead solo mining
– Scaleable networking scheduler designed to scale to any size hash rate without networking delays yet minimize connection overhead
– long poll support – will use long poll from any pool if the primary pool does not support it
– Self-detection of new blocks with a mini-database for slow/failing long poll scenarios, maximum work efficiency and minimum rejects.
– Heavily threaded code hands out work retrieval and work submission to separate threads to not hinder devices working
– Caching of submissions during transient network outages
– Preemptive fetching of work prior to completion of current work
– Local generation of valid work (via stratum, GBT or ntime rollover) whenever possible, as supported on a per-work item basis
– Prevention of stale work submission on new block
– Summarised and discrete device data statistics of requests, accepts, rejects, hw errors and work utility
– Summary displayed when quitting
– Supports multiple pools with multiple intelligent failover mechanisms
– Temporary disabling of misbehaving pools rejecting all shares
– On the fly menu based management of most settings
– Trickling of extra work to backup pools if primary pool is responding but slow
– RPC +/- JSON interface for remote control
– Bitforce support – singles and mining rig
– Icarus support
– Modminer support
– Ability to cope with slow routers
– Submit-old support
– X-Reject-Reason support
– Variable difficulty support
– Share difficulty reporting
– Target and block difficulty displays
– Block solve detection
– ASIC Avalon support
– Bitburner support
– Redfury/Bluefury USB stick support
– Bi*fury USB support
– Hexfury USB support
– Onestring miner support
– BlackArrow Bitfury support
– BFL SC asic support
– Drillbit support
– Klondike support
– KnCminer Saturn support
– KnCminer Jupiter support
– KnCminer Neptune support
– Hashfast support
– Nanofury support
– Minion support
– Antminer U1/2+ support
– Bitmine A1 support
– Avalon2/3 support
– Bitmain S1 support
– Cointerra support
– BFx2 support
– Spondoolies SP10 support
– Spondoolies SP30 support
– Rockminer R-Box support
– Hashratio support
– Avalon4/5/6/7 support
– Compac gekko support
– Direct USB communications
– Device hotplug
– Heavily featured RPC API
– Multicast support
– Proxy support

Sample output:

USB menu:

Pool menu:

Change settings menu:

Display menu:

 

Usage instructions:

Run “cgminer –help” to see options:

Usage: cgminer [-DdElmpPQqUsTouOchnV]

Options for both config file and command line:

–api-allow         Allow API access (if enabled) only to the given list of [W:]IP[/Prefix] address[/subnets]
This overrides –api-network and you must specify 127.0.0.1 if it is required
W: in front of the IP address gives that address privileged access to all api commands

–api-description   Description placed in the API status header (default: cgminer version)

–api-groups        API one letter groups G:cmd:cmd[,P:cmd:*…]
See API-README for usage

–api-listen        Listen for API requests (default: disabled)
By default any command that does not just display data returns access denied
See –api-allow to overcome this

–api-network       Allow API (if enabled) to listen on/for any address (default: only 127.0.0.1)

–api-mcast         Enable API Multicast listener, (default: disabled)
The listener will only run if the API is also enabled

–api-mcast-addr <arg> API Multicast listen address, (default: 224.0.0.75)

–api-mcast-code <arg> Code expected in the API Multicast message, don’t use ‘-‘ (default: “FTW”)

–api-mcast-port <arg> API Multicast listen port, (default: 4028)

–api-port          Port number of miner API (default: 4028)

–balance           Change multipool strategy from failover to even share balance

–benchmark         Run cgminer in benchmark mode – produces no shares

–btc-address <arg> Set bitcoin target address when solo mining to bitcoind (mandatory)

–btc-sig <arg>     Set signature to add to coinbase when solo mining (optional)

–compact           Use compact display without per device statistics

–debug|-D          Enable debug output

–disable-rejecting Automatically disable pools that continually reject shares

–fix-protocol      Do not redirect to a different getwork protocol (eg. stratum)

–hotplug <arg>     Set hotplug check time to <arg> seconds (0=never default: 5) – only with libusb

–kernel-path|-K <arg> Specify a path to where bitstream files are (default: “/usr/local/bin”)

–load-balance      Change multipool strategy from failover to quota based balance

–log|-l <arg>      Interval in seconds between log output (default: 5)

–lowmem            Minimise caching of shares for low memory applications

–monitor|-m <arg>  Use custom pipe cmd for output messages

–net-delay         Impose small delays in networking to not overload slow routers

–no-submit-stale   Don’t submit shares if they are detected as stale

–pass|-p <arg>     Password for bitcoin JSON-RPC server

–per-device-stats  Force verbose mode and output per-device statistics

–protocol-dump|-P  Verbose dump of protocol-level activities

–quiet|-q          Disable logging output, display status and errors

–real-quiet        Disable all output

–rotate <arg>      Change multipool strategy from failover to regularly rotate at N minutes (default: 0)

–round-robin       Change multipool strategy from failover to round robin on failure

–sched-start <arg> Set a time of day in HH:MM to start mining (a once off without a stop time)

–sched-stop <arg>  Set a time of day in HH:MM to stop mining (will quit without a start time)

–sharelog <arg>    Append share log to file

–shares <arg>      Quit after mining N shares (default: unlimited)

–socks-proxy <arg> Set socks4 proxy (host:port) for all pools without a proxy specified

–syslog            Use system log for output messages (default: standard error)

–temp-cutoff <arg> Temperature where a device will be automatically disabled, one value or comma separated list (default: 95)

–text-only|-T      Disable ncurses formatted screen output

–url|-o <arg>      URL for bitcoin JSON-RPC server

–user|-u <arg>     Username for bitcoin JSON-RPC server

–userpass|-O <arg> Username:Password pair for bitcoin JSON-RPC server

–verbose           Log verbose output to stderr as well as status output

–widescreen        Use extra wide display without toggling

Options for command line only:

–config|-c <arg>   Load a JSON-format configuration file
See example.conf for an example configuration.

–default-config <arg> Specify the filename of the default config file
Loaded at start and used when saving without a name.

–help|-h           Print this message

–version|-V        Display version and exit

USB device (ASIC and FPGA) options:

–icarus-options <arg> Set specific FPGA board configurations – one set of values for all or comma separated

–icarus-timing <arg> Set how the Icarus timing is calculated – one setting/value for all or comma separated

–usb <arg>         USB device selection (See below)

–usb-dump          (See FPGA-README)

See FGPA-README or ASIC-README for more information regarding these.

ASIC only options:

–anu-freq <arg>    Set AntminerU1 frequency in hex, range 150-500 (default: 200)

–avalon-auto       Adjust avalon overclock frequency dynamically for best hashrate

–avalon-fan <arg> Set fanspeed percentage for avalon, single value or range (default: 20-100)

–avalon-freq <arg> Set frequency range for avalon-auto, single value or range

–avalon-cutoff <arg> Set avalon overheat cut off temperature (default: 60)

–avalon-options <arg> Set avalon options baud:miners:asic:timeout:freq

–avalon-temp <arg> Set avalon target temperature (default: 50)

–avalon2-freq      Set frequency range for Avalon2, single value or range

–avalon2-voltage   Set Avalon2 core voltage, in millivolts

–avalon2-fan       Set Avalon2 target fan speed

–avalon2-cutoff <arg> Set Avalon2 overheat cut off temperature (default: 88)

–avalon2-fixed-speed Set Avalon2 fan to fixed speed

–avalon4-automatic-voltage Automatic adjust voltage base on module DH
–avalon4-voltage   Set Avalon4 core voltage, in millivolts, step: 125
–avalon4-freq      Set frequency for Avalon4, 1 to 3 values, example: 445:385:370
–avalon4-fan       Set Avalon4 target fan speed range
–avalon4-temp <arg> Set Avalon4 target temperature (default: 42)
–avalon4-cutoff <arg> Set Avalon4 overheat cut off temperature (default: 65)
–avalon4-polling-delay <arg> Set Avalon4 polling delay value (ms) (default: 20)
–avalon4-ntime-offset <arg> Set Avalon4 MM ntime rolling max offset (default: 4)
–avalon4-aucspeed <arg> Set Avalon4 AUC IIC bus speed (default: 400000)
–avalon4-aucxdelay <arg> Set Avalon4 AUC IIC xfer read delay, 4800 ~= 1ms (default: 9600)
–bflsc-overheat <arg> Set overheat temperature where BFLSC devices throttle, 0 to disable (default: 90)

–bitburner-fury-options <arg> Override avalon-options for BitBurner Fury boards baud:miners:asic:timeout:freq

–bitburner-fury-voltage <arg> Set BitBurner Fury core voltage, in millivolts

–bitburner-voltage <arg> Set BitBurner (Avalon) core voltage, in millivolts

–bitmain-auto      Adjust bitmain overclock frequency dynamically for best hashrate

–bitmain-cutoff    Set bitmain overheat cut off temperature

–bitmain-fan       Set fanspeed percentage for bitmain, single value or range (default: 20-100)

–bitmain-freq      Set frequency range for bitmain-auto, single value or range

–bitmain-hwerror   Set bitmain device detect hardware error

–bitmain-options   Set bitmain options baud:miners:asic:timeout:freq

–bitmain-temp      Set bitmain target temperature

–bxf-bits <arg>    Set max BXF/HXF bits for overclocking (default: 54)

–bxf-temp-target <arg> Set target temperature for BXF/HXF devices (default: 82)

–bxm-bits <arg>    Set BXM bits for overclocking (default: 50)

–compac-freq <arg> Set GekkoScience Compac frequency in MHz, range 100-500 (default: 150.0)

–hfa-hash-clock <arg> Set hashfast clock speed (default: 550)

–hfa-fail-drop <arg> Set how many MHz to drop clockspeed each failure on an overlocked hashfast device (default: 10)

–hfa-fan <arg>     Set fanspeed percentage for hashfast, single value or range (default: 10-85)

–hfa-name <arg>    Set a unique name for a single hashfast device specified with –usb or the first device found

–hfa-noshed        Disable hashfast dynamic core disabling feature

–hfa-options <arg> Set hashfast options name:clock (comma separated)

–hfa-temp-overheat <arg> Set the hashfast overheat throttling temperature (default: 95)

–hfa-temp-target <arg> Set the hashfast target temperature (0 to disable) (default: 88)

–hfa-hash-clock <arg> Set hashfast clock speed (default: 550)

–hfa-fan <arg>     Set fanspeed percentage for hashfast, single value or range (default: 10-85)

–hfa-temp-overheat <arg> Set the hashfast overheat throttling temperature (default: 95)

–hfa-temp-target <arg> Set the hashfast target temperature (0 to disable) (default: 88)

–hro-freq          Set the hashratio clock frequency (default: 280)

–klondike-options <arg> Set klondike options clock:temptarget

–nfu-bits <arg>    Set nanofury bits for overclocking, range 32-63 (default: 50)

–rock-freq <arg>   Set RockMiner frequency in MHz, range 125-500 (default: 270.0)

FPGA only options:

–bfl-range         Use nonce range on bitforce devices if supported

See FGPA-README for more information regarding this.

Cgminer should automatically find all of your Avalon ASIC, BFL ASIC, BitForce
FPGAs, Icarus bitstream FPGAs, Klondike ASIC, ASICMINER usb block erupters,
KnC ASICs, BaB ASICs, Hashfast ASICs and ModMiner FPGAs.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ON USAGE:

Single pool:

cgminer -o http://pool:port -u username -p password

Multiple pools:

cgminer -o http://pool1:port -u pool1username -p pool1password -o http://pool2:port -u pool2usernmae -p pool2password

Single pool with a standard http proxy:

cgminer -o “http:proxy:port|http://pool:port” -u username -p password

Single pool with a socks5 proxy:

cgminer -o “socks5:proxy:port|http://pool:port” -u username -p password

Single pool with stratum protocol support:

cgminer -o stratum+tcp://pool:port -u username -p password

Solo mining to local bitcoind:

cgminer -o http://localhost:8332 -u username -p password –btc-address 15qSxP1SQcUX3o4nhkfdbgyoWEFMomJ4rZ

The list of proxy types are:

http:    standard http 1.1 proxy
http0:   http 1.0 proxy
socks4:  socks4 proxy
socks5:  socks5 proxy
socks4a: socks4a proxy
socks5h: socks5 proxy using a hostname

If you compile cgminer with a version of CURL before 7.19.4 then some of the above will
not be available. All are available since CURL version 7.19.4

If you specify the –socks-proxy option to cgminer, it will only be applied to all pools
that don’t specify their own proxy setting like above

After saving configuration from the menu, you do not need to give cgminer any
arguments and it will load your configuration.

Any configuration file may also contain a single
“include” : “filename”
to recursively include another configuration file.
Writing the configuration will save all settings from all files in the output.

Also many issues and FAQs are covered in the forum thread
dedicated to the program,

http://forum.bitcoin.org/index.php?topic=28402.0

The output line shows the following:

(5s):223.5G (avg):219.6Gh/s | A:330090  R:0  HW:6904  WU:3027.6/m

Each column is as follows:

5s:  A 5 second exponentially decaying average hash rate
avg: An all time average hash rate
A:   The number of Accepted shares
R:   The number of Rejected shares
HW:  The number of HardWare errors
WU:   The Work Utility defined as the number of diff1 equivalent shares / minute

AVA 0: 23C/ 47C 2280R | 77.10G/83.20Gh/s | A:120029 R:0 HW:2295 WU:1162.5/m

Each column is as follows:

Temperature (if supported)
Fanspeed (if supported)
A 5 second exponentially decaying average hash rate
An all time average hash rate
The number of accepted shares
The number of rejected shares
The number of hardware errors
The Work Utility defined as the number of diff1 equivalent shares / minute

The Cgminer status line shows:

TQ: 1  ST: 1  SS: 0  DW: 0  NB: 1  LW: 8  GF: 1  RF: 1

TQ is Total Queued work items.
ST is STaged work items (ready to use).
SS is Stale Shares discarded (detected and not submitted so don’t count as rejects)
DW is Discarded Work items (work from block no longer valid to work on)
NB is New Blocks detected on the network
LW is Locally generated Work items
GF is Getwork Fail Occasions (server slow to provide work)
RF is Remote Fail occasions (server slow to accept work)

Multipool

FAILOVER STRATEGIES WITH MULTIPOOL:

A number of different strategies for dealing with multipool setups are
available. Each has their advantages and disadvantages so multiple strategies
are available by user choice, as per the following list:

FAILOVER:

The default strategy is failover. This means that if you input a number of
pools, it will try to use them as a priority list, moving away from the 1st
to the 2nd, 2nd to 3rd and so on. If any of the earlier pools recover, it will
move back to the higher priority ones.

ROUND ROBIN:

This strategy only moves from one pool to the next when the current one falls
idle and makes no attempt to move otherwise.

ROTATE:

This strategy moves at user-defined intervals from one active pool to the next,
skipping pools that are idle.

LOAD BALANCE:

This strategy sends work to all the pools to maintain optimum load. The most
efficient pools will tend to get a lot more shares. If any pool falls idle, the
rest will tend to take up the slack keeping the miner busy.

BALANCE:

This strategy monitors the amount of difficulty 1 shares solved for each pool
and uses it to try to end up doing the same amount of work for all pools.

SOLO MINING

Solo mining can be done efficiently as a single pool entry or a backup to
any other pooled mining and it is recommended everyone have solo mining set up
as their final backup in case all their other pools are DDoSed/down for the
security of the network. To enable solo mining, one must be running a local
bitcoind/bitcoin-qt or have one they have rpc access to. To do this, edit your
bitcoind configuration file (bitcoin.conf) with the following extra lines,
using your choice of username and password:

rpcuser=username
rpcpassword=password

Restart bitcoind, then start cgminer, pointing to the bitcoind and choose a
btc address with the following options, altering to suit their setup:

cgminer -o http://localhost:8332 -u username -p password –btc-address 15qSxP1SQcUX3o4nhkfdbgyoWEFMomJ4rZ

LOGGING

cgminer will log to stderr if it detects stderr is being redirected to a file.
To enable logging simply add 2>logfile.txt to your command line and logfile.txt
will contain the logged output at the log level you specify (normal, verbose,
debug etc.)

In other words if you would normally use:
./cgminer -o xxx -u yyy -p zzz
if you use
./cgminer -o xxx -u yyy -p zzz 2>logfile.txt
it will log to a file called logfile.txt and otherwise work the same.

There is also the -m option on linux which will spawn a command of your choice
and pipe the output directly to that command.

If you start cgminer with the –sharelog option, you can get detailed
information for each share found. The argument to the option may be “-” for
standard output (not advisable with the ncurses UI), any valid positive number
for that file descriptor, or a filename.

To log share data to a file named “share.log”, you can use either:
./cgminer –sharelog 50 -o xxx -u yyy -p zzz 50>share.log
./cgminer –sharelog share.log -o xxx -u yyy -p zzz

For every share found, data will be logged in a CSV (Comma Separated Value)
format:
timestamp,disposition,target,pool,dev,thr,sharehash,sharedata
For example (this is wrapped, but it’s all on one line for real):
1335313090,reject,
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff00000000,
http://localhost:8337,GPU0,0,
6f983c918f3299b58febf95ec4d0c7094ed634bc13754553ec34fc3800000000,
00000001a0980aff4ce4a96d53f4b89a2d5f0e765c978640fe24372a000001c5
000000004a4366808f81d44f26df3d69d7dc4b3473385930462d9ab707b50498
f681634a4f1f63d01a0cd43fb338000000000080000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000080020000

RPC API

For RPC API details see the API-README file

CGminer FAQ:

Q: Can I mine on servers from different networks (eg xxxcoin and bitcoin) at
the same time?

A: No, cgminer keeps a database of the block it’s working on to ensure it does
not work on stale blocks, and having different blocks from two networks would
make it invalidate the work from each other.

Q: Can I configure cgminer to mine with different login credentials or pools
for each separate device?

A: No.

Q: Can I put multiple pools in the config file?
A: Yes, check the example.conf file. Alternatively, set up everything either on
the command line or via the menu after startup and choose settings->write
config file and the file will be loaded one each startup.

Q: The build fails with gcc is unable to build a binary.

A: Remove the “-march=native” component of your CFLAGS as your version of gcc
does not support it.

Q: Can you implement feature X?

A: I can, but time is limited, and people who donate are more likely to get
their feature requests implemented.

Q: Work keeps going to my backup pool even though my primary pool hasn’t
failed?

A: Cgminer checks for conditions where the primary pool is lagging and will
pass some work to the backup servers under those conditions. The reason for
doing this is to try its absolute best to keep the GPUs working on something
useful and not risk idle periods. You can disable this behaviour with the
option –failover-only.

Q: Is this a virus?

A: Cgminer is being packaged with other trojan scripts and some antivirus
software is falsely accusing cgminer.exe as being the actual virus, rather
than whatever it is being packaged with. If you installed cgminer yourself,
then you do not have a virus on your computer. Complain to your antivirus
software company. They seem to be flagging even source code now from cgminer
as viruses, even though text source files can’t do anything by themself.

Q: Can you modify the display to include more of one thing in the output and
less of another, or can you change the quiet mode or can you add yet another
output mode?

A: Everyone will always have their own view of what’s important to monitor.
The defaults are very sane and I have very little interest in changing this
any further.

Q: What are the best parameters to pass for X pool/hardware/device.

A: Virtually always, the DEFAULT parameters give the best results. Most user
defined settings lead to worse performance. The ONLY thing most users should
need to set is the Intensity for GPUs.

Q: What happened to CPU and GPU mining?

A: Their efficiency makes them irrelevant in the bitcoin mining world today
and the author has no interest in supporting alternative coins that are better
mined by these devices.

Q: GUI version?

A: No. The RPC interface makes it possible for someone else to write one
though.

Q: I’m having an issue. What debugging information should I provide?

A: Start cgminer with your regular commands and add -D -T –verbose and provide
the full startup output and a summary of your hardware and operating system.

Q: Why don’t you provide win64 builds?

A: Win32 builds work everywhere and there is precisely zero advantage to a
64 bit build on windows.

Q: Is it faster to mine on windows or linux?

A: It makes no difference. It comes down to choice of operating system for
their various features. Linux offers much better long term stability and
remote monitoring and security, while windows offers you overclocking tools
that can achieve much more than cgminer can do on linux.

Q: My network gets slower and slower and then dies for a minute?

A; Try the –net-delay option.

Q: How do I tune for p2pool?

A: It is also recommended to use –failover-only since the work is effectively
like a different block chain, and not enabling –no-submit-stale. If mining with
a BFL (fpga) minirig, it is worth adding the –bfl-range option.

Q: I run PHP on windows to access the API with the example miner.php. Why does
it fail when php is installed properly but I only get errors about Sockets not
working in the logs?

A: http://us.php.net/manual/en/sockets.installation.php

Q: What is a PGA?

A: At the moment, cgminer supports 3 FPGAs: BitForce, Icarus and ModMiner.
They are Field-Programmable Gate Arrays that have been programmed to do Bitcoin
mining. Since the acronym needs to be only 3 characters, the “Field-” part has
been skipped.

Q: What is an ASIC?

A: They are Application Specify Integrated Circuit devices and provide the
highest performance per unit power due to being dedicated to only one purpose.

Q: Can I mine scrypt with FPGAs or ASICs?

A: No.

Q: What is stratum and how do I use it?

A: Stratum is a protocol designed for pooled mining in such a way as to
minimise the amount of network communications, yet scale to hardware of any
speed. With versions of cgminer 2.8.0+, if a pool has stratum support, cgminer
will automatically detect it and switch to the support as advertised if it can.
If you input the stratum port directly into your configuration, or use the
special prefix “stratum+tcp://” instead of “http://”, cgminer will ONLY try to
use stratum protocol mining. The advantages of stratum to the miner are no
delays in getting more work for the miner, less rejects across block changes,
and far less network communications for the same amount of mining hashrate. If
you do NOT wish cgminer to automatically switch to stratum protocol even if it
is detected, add the –fix-protocol option.

Q: Why don’t the statistics add up: Accepted, Rejected, Stale, Hardware Errors,
Diff1 Work, etc. when mining greater than 1 difficulty shares?

A: As an example, if you look at ‘Difficulty Accepted’ in the RPC API, the number
of difficulty shares accepted does not usually exactly equal the amount of work
done to find them. If you are mining at 8 difficulty, then you would expect on
average to find one 8 difficulty share, per 8 single difficulty shares found.
However, the number is actually random and converges over time, it is an average,
not an exact value, thus you may find more or less than the expected average.

Q: My keyboard input momentarily pauses or repeats keys every so often on
windows while mining?

A: The USB implementation on windows can be very flaky on some hardware and
every time cgminer looks for new hardware to hotplug it it can cause these
sorts of problems. You can disable hotplug with:
–hotplug 0

Q: What should my Work Utility (WU) be?

A: Work utility is the product of hashrate * luck and only stabilises over a
very long period of time. Assuming all your work is valid work, bitcoin mining
should produce a work utility of approximately 1 per 71.6MH. This means at
5GH you should have a WU of 5000 / 71.6 or ~ 69. You cannot make your machine
do “better WU” than this – it is luck related. However you can make it much
worse if your machine produces a lot of hardware errors producing invalid work.

Q: What should I build in for a generic distribution binary?

A: There are a number of drivers that expect to be used on dedicated standalone
hardware. That said, the drivers that are designed to work generically with
USB on any hardware are the following:

 

 

So did you learned about Cgminer?

Please leave us a comment

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *